Handeling Printers in Tally 8.1, Tally 7.2, Tally 6.3

Tally software and Printing go hand in hand. A truly Tally user cannot do without printing in Tally. The most beautiful thing about Tally is that what ever screen you can see in Tally irrespective of what report it is or what voucher it is you can take a print out of it. To add one more facility you can take printout after satisfying your self with print preview. The best and most easiest way to take print out is to print every thing on Laser printer. But most of the users who have a great work load use Dot matrix printer to save printing cost and to increase printing speed.
To facilitate the users, Tally has three printing formats or printing modes.
  • Dot Matrix format
  • Neat mode
  • Quick/Draft

All the three modes can work on dot matrix mode but printer have to do extra efforts to work on Neat mode. So user of dot matrix printer work on Dot Matrix mode or in Quick/Draft Mode. The speed of printing, which matters to most of the users is fastest in Quick/Draft mode but the quality is also a little bit poor.

Neat mode is good for laser / Ink jet printers which has an added feature of print preview, which helps you to let it view the size and the contents to be printed.

How to Print :

To print any screen visible you have to press Alt + P or just click on print button on top left side of Tally menu in Tally 8.1 and in the button bar in Tally 7.2 and lower versions.
Few thing has to be decided before continuing with printing. These options can be checked before giving the final printing.
  1. Check the print preview if you are using th Neat Mode. Use Alt + Z for zoom mode and Esc for Normal mode
  2. Check if how many copies of print you want to print. Click No. of Copies Button
  3. If you have pre printed stationery then you have to press Pre Printed Button on Right hand button bar.
  4. Check for printing configuration by pressing F12 button. This would give you the idea about size of the printing space.
  5. You can choose for printing style of invoice also in F12 configuration and check various options regarding printing. It can be Simple mode or without Simple Mode.
  6. Check the Select printer button to select the desired printer. by Default the default printer is picked up.
  7. You can change the title of the printing to be done. Press Title Button on button Bar.
  8. In Tally 8.1 you can select the language in which you want to print. e.g. If company is sending invoice in North India then, it can be printed in Hindi, Hinglish, Punjabi etc.

Troubleshooting the Printing Problems:

Most of the printing problems comes with dot matrix printer. The nature of problem is mostly regarding the size of printer and the size of paper you have defined.
In this case when ever you would try to print the software would exit unexpectedly with giving exceptional message. Some times the message would be insufficient height or width to allocate.
To trouble shoot you have to check of what is the paper size defined in the printer. You can give your custom setting and see if the height and width of the paper matches with the height and width in the Tally printing menu. Try to strike the right combination by changing both the values one by one.
Another problem comes with printer driver. If the machine you are using for tally has too many printers then their printer drivers conflict with Tally. In case of such error tally would give you problem in opening. To sort it out Delete all unnecessary printer drivers.

If any more printer related problem is hunting you then send it to me in comments.


Shailendra Yadav

The Post is written with an aim to help Tally software users. You can consider subscribing all my post related to Tally by putting your email id in the box below and joining my email list. If you find the contents interesting then don't forget to share it with your friends.
You can also get professional help like Implementation of Tally in your business or Web Support on tally by asking a Quote.

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

80 responses:

  1. I have Tally 9.0 (just upgraded). I want print my sales invoice in text mode on my DMP. I have TVS MSP 245 DMP printer with me.
    I want to print on 80 col stationery.
    How do i do it.
    Please help

    ReplyDelete
  2. HI, I'm using Tally 7.2, i want to know, is there any option in tally to Customize our Reports. for E.g. If i want to Print Bank Payment Voucher, can i print it in any other format? i Heard from someone that using TDL's we can customize our printing presentation. Please Help me. Thanks in advance.

    ReplyDelete
  3. hi first name customization is very much possible in tally. you can get any report or screen customized according to your need. TDL of Tally definition language is the tool with help if which it is done.
    You are welcome at any time for customization according to your requirement.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hi vinod,
    There is nothing different or new in tally 9 regarding printing.
    Sales invoice printing is normally done on dot matrix printer in tally.
    Just select the printer in print menu after pressing Alt+P.
    If tally is throwing you out with an error message then there is some mismatch of paper size defined in F12 configuration and actual paper size defined in printer .You have to check for paper size which is defined and the actual paper size . The paper size defined in tally should not be bigger then paper size defined in your printer.
    Normally after hit and try you would arrive at correct size and get the printing.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hi I'm using Tally 7.2, and can print with any printer local or network but i just installed HP 1020 Laserjet printer and shared on other pc. in this case i can print tally vouchers from local pc but cant from remote pc. Remote pc is printing anything except tally. pls help me out.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Anonymous4:22 PM

    i am using dot matrix printer tvs msp 240. i use manual paper for printing. i need to press online every time i print. is there any settings so that i can print without pressing online button.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Anonymous12:29 PM

    Hello.
    Can Tally 9 be used by consignment agents? A consignment agent treats the goods as purchased only when he sells the goods. And the sales invoices should have all the excise details of the products.
    Thank you for your help.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Anonymous1:35 PM

    sir when i am printing invoice in tally 7.2 the address of the company truncated every time although it is not very long, divided in each given line as u can see in company info section. i am using wipro lx800 (dmp) printer. i have changed to different printer option from fanfold to letter size but no use. remaining printing is fine. no cut in details anywhere. please help.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Anonymous7:58 PM

    sir, the data was rewrite through 7.2 version original data was in tally 5.4, now whenever i print my invoice the address of my company get truncated below my company name. using of F12 of no use although data converted from 4.5 version to 7.2 version giving no problem in printing . that's why i think 'old is gold' & better like to stick with it.

    ReplyDelete
  10. For missing address in tally 7.2 jsut doe the following
    1. check if there are addresses in all sundry ledgers.
    2. While entring sales vouchers check for option in F12 Allow supplementary details is set to Yes
    If it is Yes then add the address of the ledger manually.
    If it is no then check for the second option of Print default names and address of the party . It should be set to Yes.
    If it is still not sorted out then check for printing options.
    The option Pre-Printed should be there and not the plain paper.
    Hope it would solve you the problem.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Anonymous12:29 PM

    I shall be very glad if someone could kindly send me TDL Author Serial No and Password, in response I can tell how to use a Tally single user licence in several computers at one time.

    Please contact me at weareventures@yahoo.co.in

    ReplyDelete
  12. Anonymous5:55 PM

    Hi...i am using Tally 5.4, can u tell me how can i print 2 or 3 payment voucher on a single A4 paper. i am using HP Officejet 5510. I am trying to make it possible by reducing the voucher height to 3" and then taking the space on top as 0.1" for first print. then for the same paper i give top space as 4". then it crashes giving TDL error that height cannot be allocated...plz help me..otherwise i endup wasting a lot of precious paper.. :(:(
    plzz reply at - msd.india[at]gmail[dot]com

    bbye n thanx in advance

    nick

    ReplyDelete
  13. I am having tally 6.3 version
    when i saw the balance sheet it show current assets in liabilities side

    Kindly advice me what to do

    Sushma

    ReplyDelete
  14. Matrix11:57 AM

    I am using a genuine Tally 7.2 (on Win 98SE) till now I have been using it with success with all printers but recently I installed a 'Local' HP 1018 Laser printer and I cant print from Tally to this printer. Where as all other applications can print from this printer.

    ReplyDelete
  15. While using my Tally 9.0 the "Multi Account Printing" option is not active in Gateway of Tally. but can print the reports in other ways. Could u pls tell my why its so? Thanks
    PS : I am not using a licenced version

    ReplyDelete
  16. i am using tally 7.2.
    while taking a printout of an account from ledger last 3 digits in each column is missing
    i reinstalled printer(TVS MSP 250 Champion), tally but no use
    i tried hp officejet 4300 and got nice result
    earlier i used to get correct printout from tally in my dot matrix printer
    can i solve this problem

    ReplyDelete
  17. baiju ji
    Educational version doesn't support multi account printing. You Need the license version for this.

    Saurabh ji You need the latest version of Tally 7.2 or a better crack if you are not using the license version.

    ReplyDelete
  18. How do i delete ledger in tally ?

    ReplyDelete
  19. Anonymous9:45 PM

    hi i have a problem in tally 7.2,

    when i give print command i got

    following massage

    Exiting TALLY

    Error in TDL

    Part DSP Acc Titles

    Insufficient width to allocate.

    kindly advice me what to do? my mail id is basubhanu_das@yahoo.co.in

    ReplyDelete
  20. Anonymous5:11 PM

    i am using tally 7.2 my problem is that when i print any ledger the date is not printed completely eg. if it is 1.4.2008 it is ok but if it is 12.12.2007 than only 12.12.20is printed 07 is missing. i can see the complete date in print preview

    ReplyDelete
  21. to get the date correctly you have to install latest release of 3.14 of Tally 7.2. It would solve your problem

    ReplyDelete
  22. hi
    my name is prashanth.
    I installed hp laserjet printer in my system and i am not able to print from my tally 9. it is also not showing in the printer list.But i can get test page and all.why its so pls tell me.I tried everything possible.pls help me.
    its urgent.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Prashanth, check if your printer is installed in windows or not. If you can see it in printer list then it would be automatically in Tally.
    One other way to check it is go to MS Word and try to print some document through this printer. If it is done then printer is ok otherwise check for it. while printing in Tally select the printer and it would be there in the list.

    ReplyDelete
  24. shardul3:19 AM

    Hi I am Shardul.

    I am using Tally 9 release 2.12
    I was using 4355 Officejet all in one to take prints from tally. I recently bought HP LaserJet 1020 Plus printer and installed it. Now it can print all documents and sheets proparly. But while taking print from Tally it is not incorporating proper information. It actually misses few last characters in some columns. I think it is not been able to print condensed mode which is essential to print from Tally. Please do provide solution for the same.

    ReplyDelete
  25. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  26. hi. i 've a doubt about how to print a single page from bunch of printing in tally9 . if i 've to print 5th no. of page from the total of 10. how can i do that?

    ReplyDelete
  27. I recently bought HP LaserJet 1020 Plus printer and installed it. Now it can print all documents and sheets properly. But while taking print from Tally it is not incorporating proper information. It actually misses few last characters in some columns. I think it is not been able to print condensed mode which is essential to print from Tally. Please do provide solution for the same.

    ReplyDelete
  28. Anonymous8:43 PM

    hi i facing problem when i pring any debite not credit note i found 2 charecter cut on particular date format Exp : 24 apr 20 .

    i have using new hp 1020 plus printer.
    pls guide me .

    jignesh

    ReplyDelete
  29. Install Tally 7.2 Rel 3.14 the last version to rectify this problem

    ReplyDelete
  30. PRAKASH KUMAR10:04 AM

    Sir,
    I have Tally 9 Release 1.0.

    I am facing proble in Printing. My Tally's Gateway of Tally does not display Multi Account Printing and I am unable to get print of all of my account and inventory ledgers for record.

    kindly guide me how to activate "MULTI ACCOUNT PRINTING" in Gateway of Tally.

    with regards,

    ReplyDelete
  31. Anonymous5:39 PM

    Hello TallyHelper,

    We are using Tally6.3 Multiuser Genuine version. We have 1 HP network printer for all ledger/voucher printing and 1 HP printer locally attached for cheque printing. We are using tally for last good 8-10 years with no major bugs in it. Atleast we can live with those bugs.

    But one thing which is always hunting us is: every morning we need to select the printer in Tally which we wish to use for printing in every client. If we do not select any printer, it always displays ne000.

    The printer in the printers list has already been selected as "Default" printer thru windows control panel. But still everytime is showing ne000.

    If you could help me as how to set any printer as default printer for Tally, that would be a great help for us.

    Thanks and Regards.

    Bharat_saroch@hotmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  32. Anonymous9:47 AM

    i suggest you to upgrade to tally 9 and get the latest of best out of Tally. As you are an old user i am surprised to know how come you do without latest tally. If not possible to upgrade then get the last release of tally 6.3 and check if this problem still persists.

    ReplyDelete
  33. TALLY KO OPRATATING TIME PAR POWER FAILEURE HO GAYA TALLY KA EK LEDGER OPEN NAHI HO RAHA HAI JAISE OPEN KARATE HAI EROR BATA KAR EXIT HO JATA HAI

    ReplyDelete
  34. aliakbar dholfad11:56 AM

    We are using Tally 7.2 on windows 2003 server SP2. It's printing properly on the LAN. however when printing the reports through Terminal server Session the printout has missing information ( complete colomns are not printed ). we are using HP and Samsung printer with USB Port.

    Can you please help?
    I have searched the microsoft for any problem in terminal server but nothing related could be found.

    ReplyDelete
  35. Anonymous3:14 PM

    I want to add appx. 150 characters of terms and conditions. How can this be done.Can it be more characters like 200 or 250. Or can I define a smaller font let us say 7 or 8 points for this text. How to define fonts? I want also to write an acceptance of the client below for co. name & signatures. can it be done, if yes. HOW!

    ReplyDelete
  36. Anonymous12:53 PM

    Not able to get prnt from tally, its showing tally exit error. Help ME

    ReplyDelete
  37. Anonymous5:53 PM

    I am not able to print from Tally 7.2. I use a laser printer and have given the page size as A4. The printer is working fine for other programs. Neither am I able to take a PDF print. This is the first time it has happened. Kindly suggest a way. It did show an exit error once. I restarted but then the computer hanged everytime I gave a print.

    Lav

    ReplyDelete
  38. WHEN I PRINT IN TALLY 7.2 EIS 1.2 IT SAVES A .MDI (IMAGE FORMAT) OF THE PAGE AND THEN I'VE TO LATER PRINT IT OUT FROM MY DOCUMENTS. I'M USING A COMPAQ IJ 600 INKJET PRINTER. HOW DO I PRINT DIRECTLY?

    ReplyDelete
  39. Shekhar Desai4:24 PM

    I am using Tally 7.2 and takes print out using a network printer. The printer used is "hp officejet 4255 all-in-one". My problem is till yesterday I was able to take print out of tally reports using above printer. But today I am not able to take the prints. I checked the network setting. There is no problem there as I can take print outs of "Micosoft word, excel, paint etc.
    Kindly help.

    ReplyDelete
  40. i have tally 7.2 in my invoice bill not display my company name and address pls send me solution


    smirugwad@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  41. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  42. i am using tally 7.2 my problem is that when i print any ledger the date is not printed completely eg. if it is 1.4.2008 it is ok but if it is 12.12.2007 than only 12.12.20is printed 07 is missing. i can see the complete date in print preview

    i also tried the tally 7.2 rel 3.14 as you said bur priblem is same olease give me a solution

    ReplyDelete
  43. Anonymous11:28 PM

    Hi, I am using tally 5.4 and hp printer 4300 series all in one with XP pro Sp2 ,I am trying to print transaction statements for a company, whenever i click on print command, I see a box for sending a fax not the print command box. I have formatted my system recently. earlier I was able to print directly. Also, I used to get a box from microsoft or something like that(if I remember correctly). Please help. Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  44. Hi

    I am using Tally 4.5 - with DM Printer -this works well, however I changed to HP 1020 series and now the printer is not shown in the tally list even. It works well on MS Word however. Please if you guys can help
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  45. I have installed two printer , now how select a printer in tally , can you help me in how select printer, as out of the two printers installed in my system tally can nnot print from either one, i think I have to select any of the one printer in tally, but don'y know how. pl help

    ReplyDelete
  46. I am using Tally 9 and want to take printout of my voucher after i enter it. when i give print option my voucher is printed in two pages even though space is available in first page....

    how to get my voucher in just one page..

    please help me

    ReplyDelete
  47. HALLO!
    SIR,
    I'M USING TALLY ERP9..BUT IN THIS HAS MORE PROBLEM..WHEN I PRINT COMMAND TO ANY LEDGER & VOUCH. ETC.THEN HE NOT SAW US PRINT PREVIEW BEFORE PRINT OUT.......SO SIR PLZ. HELP ME......I'M IN TROUBLE.!
    MY ID IS.naveensethi29@gmail.com.
    THANKS IN ADVANCE...& SEND ME CONFIGURATION OF CHQ.PRINTING.
    PLZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ!

    ReplyDelete
  48. Naveen, Please check out the print mode. It should be neat mode only.
    then only it would show you the print preview.
    Another thing is check if the printer is installed on computer. Then only print preview is shown.
    Last thing to check is that print preview button on the right hand pane is selected. when it is selected the button would show no preview.
    Hope it would solve your queries.

    ReplyDelete
  49. shekhar.8.nov@gmail.com2:22 PM

    sir recently i have installed hp laserjet1020 printer.but i m unable to print my data through tally 7.2
    though i cn print other documents well throgh msword,xcel etc.it is in the printer list of tally.i m in trouble..plz help me out

    ReplyDelete
  50. Shekhar, you need to delete unwanted printers. Delete all printer drivers and then install the hp printer again. It would work

    ReplyDelete
  51. sir wht to do if we want to modify description in tally 7.2 while printing which is given by default

    ReplyDelete
  52. hi hello, please give the correct sollution to me i use tvs msp245 dmp when i am printing reports in tally 7.2 the pages of top and bottom are leave it many inches how it correct? many pages and paper waste

    ReplyDelete
  53. SHARATH3:02 PM

    I have using Tally 9.2.1 version.
    I have using Company stationery of
    10X12 paper Size.
    The above 2inch of stationery is preprinted so I have tried a lot for reduce the size from top to 2 inch. I have called to Tally solution centre also but the information was not sufficent.

    I have set a new form of Paper size bu it was also unsucessful.
    There was an error showing when i put 2inch leave from top.

    The error is

    Error in TDL
    Height does not allocate.

    So please any one have solution please reply me.

    Sharath. P.

    ReplyDelete
  54. Hi...i am using Tally ERP, can u tell me how can i print 4 copies of same invoice on a single A4 paper. i am using Samsung Laser Printer plz help me..otherwise i endup wasting a lot of precious paper.. :(:(
    plzz reply at - deepak18foru[at]gmail[dot]com

    ReplyDelete
  55. Anonymous5:41 PM

    Hi I am using Tally Erp9. In one of my system tally Erp9 is not taking the default printer for printing any of the document. I am selecting manually. Please privide the solution.

    ReplyDelete
  56. I'm using Tally ERP 9 latest relies, and I have 3-4 shared printers also. While secting the printer Tally was quiting automatically, so I was unable to print. I have tried a lot with the tally agents to sort out this issue, but no use at all.

    Now I have installed a print server, so everithing is ok now. Ithink this is the only solution for this problem.

    ReplyDelete
  57. Anonymous2:35 PM

    I am using tally 7.2, 2 days before my printing coming smoothly, but today i cant print whats the problem

    ReplyDelete
  58. hello sir its me sunil here yet now i am using wep lx800 printer .... i wants used it to tally 9... my question is i wants to change or increase font size while printing how its possible ... inform me .... aslo send me a answer to my mail id

    sunil.hebbar.s@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  59. Mohamed1:52 PM

    Hello Sir,

    I am using Tally 7.2 and printer HP Laserjet 1020 , not able to print normal size printing . Whenever i tries to print it shows " page not fit for printing and exiting from tally..

    Previous we use to take print out as landscape only.

    ReplyDelete
  60. Anonymous4:48 PM

    hello sir

    i am using tally 7.2 and wipro lx-800 dot matrix printer.
    how to change print area 80*66lines

    it is print per page 66 lines. i want to change 72 lines.
    pl send the me by my mail id manojstar1@yahoo.co.in

    ReplyDelete
  61. Anonymous4:11 PM

    Hello sir

    I am using tally 7.2 when giving printing option it is asking for save the document & then print preview is coming then again i have to give Ctrl + P then printing is coming out, how can i get direct print??

    ReplyDelete
  62. Hello Sir

    WHEN I PRINT IN TALLY 7.2 EIS 1.2 IT SAVES A .MDI (IMAGE FORMAT) OF THE PAGE AND THEN I'VE TO LATER PRINT IT OUT FROM MY DOCUMENTS. I'M USING A COMPAQ IJ 600 INKJET PRINTER. HOW DO I PRINT DIRECTLY?

    ReplyDelete
  63. Anonymous7:00 PM

    I have installed same Tally 7.2 with latest update from tally. all printing fine by last 2 days it not print voucher properly i have installed tally on windows XP and used HP 1020 printer over network.
    when we print voucher date printed like "18-Nov-2" it should be "18-Nov-2010" as i saw it on print view.

    ReplyDelete
  64. hello
    how do i put my invoice format into tally for printing
    i dont know how to use TDL
    is it possible i send u my invoice copy and you guys create it for me
    thanks

    ReplyDelete
  65. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  66. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  67. Anonymous12:52 PM

    hello sir,
    i m using tally 9.with dot matrics printer. can u tell me how to change font in sales invoice.
    for ex. i wanna the font in neat mode printing just like which cums in dot matrics format so that i can print my sales invoice in neat mode with dot matrics font....plz reply on this or reply on my email :- shrinks_golechha@yahoo.co.in

    ReplyDelete
  68. shrenik4:38 PM

    hello sir,
    i m using tally 9.with dot matrics printer. can u tell me how to change font in sales invoice.
    for ex. i wanna the font in neat mode printing just like which cums in dot matrics format so that i can print my sales invoice in neat mode with dot matrics font....plz reply on this or reply on my email :- shrinks_golechha@yahoo.co.in

    ReplyDelete
  69. while printing the day book, i am not getting the total amount of debit and credit at the end.

    ReplyDelete
  70. You were meant to blog. It has inspired me to start my own blog on barrie dentist

    cheap clomid

    ReplyDelete
  71. hi i cant print sales invoice properly in till printer(epson TM-T88IIIP)it a bit bigger than cash register when i print it cuts from the sides how can adjust the hieght and width. thank youx

    ReplyDelete
  72. Anurag2:39 PM

    Hello Sir, I am using Tally ERP 9 & it is not printing the company name and address on any document i print. It is not even showing it in print preview. Plz help

    ReplyDelete
  73. pratyush11:18 PM

    hello sir,
    i m using tally 6.3 with hp 1010 i had buyed new printer hp1020+.
    my old printer automatically shrinks the larger amount quantity and every thing in the alocated space but the new one cant do so. it cannot shrinks n prints without cut n results in partial printing.
    pls help

    ReplyDelete
  74. i have HP deskjet F2120 printer...my problem is that i want to print my invioce in middle of the page because on A4 paper on top my comapny's logo and detail and mentioned...so plz tell me how to settle my printing in middle

    ReplyDelete
  75. i am using tally 7.2 and previously when i use to print a ledger statement in pdf format was used to get saved automatically but now when i print no ledger is printed....how do i get that feature back?

    ReplyDelete
  76. Madhavan R4:15 PM

    I am using Tally 9 Rel 2.14,i can print on HP 2420,but when i give any print from Tally9 to HP_P3005n printer either tally hangs or tally exit's.this happens only with tally.other documents pritns fine.any solutions

    ReplyDelete
  77. I am using tally 9. I have changed the page setting for printing voucher. But when I close tally and reopen the changes i made automatically removed. Plz help how to get permanent changes

    ReplyDelete
  78. I use tally 6.3.1 i was using it since an year. i use to print my vouchers in a6 paper size. Yesterday i got my system formatted but kept tally secured in other drive so that my settings remain saved. But after restoring the same, the tally exits on printing on that paper size. The page are shows (0'0" X 0'0"). please help me out of this error. It shows the error -
    "Exiting Tally:
    Error in : TDL"

    ReplyDelete
  79. pooja5:31 PM

    hello sir !!! in my pc when i give the print command the document opens in microsoft one note instead of getting directly printed so please help me !!!!

    ReplyDelete
  80. Hi - I'm having a strange problem with Tally. When printing in detailed format on my ledger accounts, the Date and Particulars field are printed as a full rectangle black box.

    It is happening on places where the number of digits on any of the field are too many. For e.g.:

    5-5-2011 prints completely fine
    10-10-2011 will be printed as a black box. My guess is that the date field has a 'number of characters' limitation on printing.

    Same happens for Particulars - if the description or name is within 20 or so characters, it prints fine, otherwise a giant black box.

    Can anyone please tell me how to solve this problem?

    Thanks!

    ReplyDelete

 

Copyright @ 2013 ApniTally.

Designed by Templateiy &Site Developed abd Maintained By Cybertec Solutions